Ophthalmologists have long been reluctant to inject drugs into the eye, fearing toxicity to sensitive intraocular tissues. Exceptions always existed in crises, with the treatment of presumed infective postoperative endophthalmitis (IPOE) generally serving as the model of urgency in which extra risk was justified. Led by Henry Edelhauser, safer irrigating solutions for Charles Kelman’s phacoemulsification procedure (1967) were developed. These were based upon princi ples of safe intraocular administration (isotonic, preservative free, pH balanced, and containing optimized electrolytes to match aqueous). Soon after, Gholam Peyman and James Gills carefully formulated drugs, based on the same princi ples, in safe concentrations for intravitreal and intracameral injection, respectively. They were “homemade” but effective.